A "Standard" is the written description of a purebred dog. It is used as a blueprint for breeders and judges; to set out the purpose/function of a breed, the physical characteristics and temperament needed to fulfil that function.
Every country recognizes a Standard for breeds within that country. In Canada, the Canadian Kennel Club (under the Canadian Department of Agriculture) is the registering body for purebred dogs and encourages breed clubs to follow the Standards from the country of origin - for the Shiba Inu, this is Japan. While translations and cultural differences may mean that the standards are not word for word, the intent should be universal.
FCI Standard (select EN version)